Mongolia at a Glance


  • Geography

    • A landlocked c untry without access to sea, with a total area of 1.565 million sq km (water: 9,600 sq km, land: 1,555,400 sq km);
      Situated in Northeast Asia, sandwiched between China and Russia (landlocked);
      total international border is 8,162 km, of which 4,677 km is with China and 3,485 km with Russia. Mongolia is a continental country (average temperature in winter is – 20c, and in summer +20c)

  • Demography

    • Population: approx. 3.3 million (As of June 2012);
      Average life expectancy – 68.6 (June 2012) Male: 63.5 years Female: 67.9 years. Population in capital Ulaanbaatar: 1.267.000 (43% of the total population of the country, as of 2013). Largest ethnic groups (2020 data): Khalkha – 83.8%, Kazakh – 3,8%, Durvud – 2,6%, Bayad – 2,0%, Buryat – 1,4%, Zakhchin – 1,2%, Dariganga – 1.1%, Uriankhai – 0.9%, other smaller groups are less than 1% respectively. Religion – Statistics show that 59.5% of the population, aged 15 and above, are believers, 40.6% of this population say they are non-believers. 87.1% of all believers are Buddhists, while the majority of youth, aged 15-19, are Christians or Muslims.



















  • Economy

    • Key sectors: Mining: (22% of GDP, 61% of industrial output, contribution towards GDP growth – 5%);
      agriculture (Livestock, 2013, NSO: 45 mln, sheep – 20 mln (44,5%), goats – 19 mln (42,6%), cattle – 2,9 mln (6,4%), horses – 2,6% (5,8%), camels – 0,3 mln (0,7%)(16% of GDP and 40% of employment, contribution to GDP – growth agriculture – 1,8%);
      construction, services, manufacturing. FDI net inflow (World Bank): USD 4,7 bn (2011), USD 4,4 bn (2012), USD 1,8 bn (2013). GDP growth average between 2005 – 2013 is 7,9%.Resources: Coal (almost half is cocking coal): proven reserves of 20,79 bn tonnes (2013, 10th largest coal source). Mongolia has further 173,3 bn tonnes of unproven coal reserves at around 300 mines. Copper: known reserves of 83,5 mln tonnes (2013)(12thlargest copper source). Gold: proven reserves of 2400 tonnes (2013). Fluorite/fluorspar: proven reserves of 16 mln tonnes (4th largest in the world). Uranium: proven reserves of 140 thousand tonnes (Olympic dam – 358 thousand tonnes). Iron ore – approx. 1 bn tonnes;
      Zinc – 36 mln tonnes;
      Molybdenum – 972 thousand tonnes;
      Silver – 27 mln tonnes, Rare earth elements: est. 31 mln tonnes (16% of global reserves);
      Crude oil – 2,3 bn barrels.Trade (2014, 1-10, NSO): Export structure: Commodities – 82%, precious metals stones – 7%, textile – 6,7%. Main export partners: China 87.9%, Russia – 2%, Canada – 3.7%, UK 3,6%, others – 3,4%, Russia – 1,4% (2013). Major imports: Machinery and equipment, fuel comprise 58,6% of total imports, also, cars, food products, industrial customer goods, chemicals, building materials. Main import partners (2013): China 25.1%, Russia 23.5%, others – 20,8%, US 11.6%, Japan 7.8%, South Korea 7.6%.

  • Type of Governance

    • Parliamentary republic. Separation of State Powers:

      Legislative branch: State Great Hural (Parliament), unicameral, 76 seats;
      members elected by popular vote to serve for a term of four years (Speaker of the Parliament – Mr. B. Zandanshatar, elected in 2020).

      Executive branch: Government headed by Prime Minister, approved by the Parliament (Prime minister – Mr. U. Khurelsukh, approved in 2020, when the Mongolian People’s Party headed by him, was elected with a majority of votes in the 2020 Parliamentary Elections held on 24 June. According to the new amendments to the Constitution, the Prime Minister formed his Cabinet, appointing the Cabinet Members - MInisters).

      Judicial branch (independent): Supreme Court;
      judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the country’s President.

      Head of State: President (symbolic), elected by a popular vote to serve for a four-year term (President – Mr. Kh. Battulga was elected in 2017).

      Political parties: 21 parties (2012, multi – party system) Parties with seats in the parliament (2016): Mongolian People’s Party - 62 seats in 2020); Democratic Party - 11; “Right Choice – Electorate Coalition” of the National Labour Party, Mongolian Social Democratic Party, and Grace Party – 1 seat; “Our Coalition” of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, the Civil Will-Green Party and the United Party of Mongolian Traditions – 1 seat and 1 independent candidate.

  • Administrative Division

    • The territory of Mongolia is divided administratively into 21 aimags (province) and the capital city. Each aimag has a Governor;
      each aimag has number of soums (there are 331 soums), and the soum is administratively divided into smaller units calls baghs. The average population in soums is approximately 5,000-6,000. The Capital Ulaanbaatar city has 9 districts. Governance of administrative and territorial units of Mongolia is organised on the basis of combination of the principles of self-government and central government.

  • Foreign Policy

    • Mongolian parliament approved three basic documents defining foreign policy: Concept of National security, Concept of Foreign policy and the Military doctrine. Mongolia pursues open, non-aligned, multi-pillar foreign policy. Mongolia encouraged pursuing active third neighbour policy.In 1992, Mongolia declared its nuclear weapon-free-status, enshrined in a law, a policy, which later was endorsed by UN’s SC’s all 5 permanent members – nuclear powers. Mongolia is a member of many international institutions and forums: ARF, OSCE, ESCAP, ASEM. Also, Mongolia is an observer at SCO, has signed partnership agreements with the EU and NATO. Mongolia successfully organised the International Conference of New and Restored Democracies in 2003;
      and chaired the Community of Democracies in 2011. Mongolia hosted ASEM’s 11th summit in 2016. To date Mongolia maintains diplomatic relations with 173 countries.