Political Relations

  • Diplomatic Relations

    • - Mongolia and the Republic of India established diplomatic relations on 24 December 1955.

      - Mongolia and India reciprocally appointed Ambassadors and the Embassy of Mongolia was opened in New Delhi in 1956, and Embassy of India was opened in Mongolia in 1971.

      - Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Mongolia Gonchig Ganbold presented his credentials to the President of India in 2015.

  • Status of Relationship

    • “Strategic Partnership”

      - Mongolia-India Declaration of 1973

      - Joint Mongolia-India Statements of 1989, 2001, 2004 and 2019

      - 1994 Treaty of Friendly Relations and Cooperation

      - Bilateral Relations reached the level of Comprehensive Partnership in 2009

      - Relations reached the level of Strategic Partnership in May 2015

      - Mongolia and India are working to extend political, defense, cultural, education and humanitarian ties, and to enrich cooperation economically.

      - The two countries are committed to maintain the tradition of active cooperation on the international arena.

  • Mutual High - level Visits

    • From Mongolia:

      - Chairman of the Council of Ministers of MPR in 1959 and 1963

      - Chairman of the Presidium of the Great People’s Khural in 1989

      - President of Mongolia – 1994, 2001, 2009 and 2020

      - Chairman of the State Great Khural – 1996, 1998, 2010

      - Prime Minister of Mongolia – 2004

      - Minister for Foreign Affairs of Mongolia – 1975, 1978, 1982, 2005, 2013 and 2019 (to attend the 4th Raisina Dialogue)

      From India:

      - President of the Republic of India – 2011

      - Prime Minister of India – 2015

      - Vice President of India – 1957, 1988, 1992, 1996, 1999 and 2016 (ASEM Summit)

      - Speaker of the Lower House of the Parliament – Lok Sabha – 2010, 2016

      - Minister of External Affairs– 1976, 2018

      - Minister of Home Affairs 2018

      - Minister of State for External Affairs– 2003, 2009 and 2011

      - Minister of State for Home Affairs 2018

  • Mechanisms of Bilateral Relations

    • Mongolia-India Joint Committee on Cooperation (MIJCC):

      - First MIJCC Meeting – Ulaanbaatar, 2006

      - Second MIJCC Meeting – New Delhi, 2010

      - Third MIJCC Meeting – Ulaanbaatar, 2011

      - Fourth MIJCC Meeting – New Delhi, 2013

      - Fifth MIJCC Meeting – New Delhi, 2016

      - Sixth MIJCC Meeting – Ulaanbaatar, 2018

      Parliamentary Group:

      - The Parliaments of Mongolia and India concluded “Cooperation Protocols” in 1995, 2001 and 2016

      - Mongolia-India Parliamentary Group was established at the State Great Khural (Parliament of Mongolia) in 2016 with 14 members and its Chairperson was MP B. Undarmaa

      - India-Mongolia Parliamentary Group was established at the Indian Parliamentar in January 2018 with 14 members and its Chairperson is Rattan Lal Kataria, Member of Lok Sabha

      Consultative Meetings between the two Foreign Ministries.

      They were held as follows:

      - New Delhi, 2014

      - Ulaanbaatar, 2016

      Other mechanisms of relations:

      - A Working Group for cooperation in the field of nuclear energy has been set up between the respective agencies of the two countries i.e. the Department of Atomic Energy and the Nuclear Energy Agency of Mongolia. The second meeting of this Working Group was held in Mumbai from 10-12 December 2012.

Commercial and Economic Ties

  • Trade Relations


      Export (mln USD)

      Import (mln USD)

























      Mongolia has been primarily exporting to India dehaired cashmere and raw sheep wool, has been importing from India rice, sugar, cotton and synthetic fabrics, medicine and pharmaceutical products, vaccines, and trucks.

  • Investment

    • A direct investment of US$7.5 million had been made by 31 Indian companies and firms in Mongolia (2018)

  • Loans and Assistance

    • Soft loans from India:

      - The Government of India extended a “Stabilization Loan” of US$25 million in 2009.

      - US$20 million to Mongolia for the establishment of Information Technology, Outsourcing Center in Mongolia (2012)

      - A Line of Credit of US$1 billion to support growth of the infrastructure, a vital sector of economy, was announced by the Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi during his official visit to Mongolia on 16-17 May 2015.

      Assistance from India:

      - US$2.8 million for the renovation of the Rajiv Gandhi Polytechnic College for Production and Art.

      - US$1.0 million – Renovation of the Computer Technology and Management School of the University of Science and Technology.

      - Mongolian Tugrig MT1.5 billion equivalent – “Bhabhatron-II” radiation therapy unit donated to the National Cancer Center.

      - US$50 thousand to assist aimags (provinces) affected by flood (2018).

Humanitarian Relations

  • Mutual travels by citizens

    • - Diplomatic and official passport holders are exempt from entry visa and visa fee in accordance with the “Agreement on Non-Visa Travels of Mongolian and Indian Citizens holding Diplomatic and Official Passports” signed in New Delhi on 23 December 2005.

      - Ordinary passport holders must obtain entry visa to Mongolia (there is no visa fee) and “Visa-on-Arrival” regime is available for Indian citizens since February 2020.

  • Mongolians in India

    • - As of today, there are almost 500 Mongolians in India for study, pilgrimage etc.

      - Most of the Mongolians in India today are lama monks, studying at Buddhist monasteries in Karnataka, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and the majority of them are children under the age of 18.

  • Relations in the Education Sector

    • - Annually 150 Mongolian civil service professionals attend various courses in India under the ITEC programme.

      - Annually around 50 Mongolians pursue Bachelors, Masters and Doctorates Degrees in India under the Indian Cultural Exchange Programme.

      - 15 Mongolian simultaneous interpreters for the ASEM (Asia-Europe Meeting) Summit were trained in India.

      - Prominent Mongol Study Scholars from India are Lokesh Chandra, Sharad Soni, Mansoor Haidar.

  • Cultural Relations

    • - Mongolia-India Cultural Relations Society was established in 1959, which was reorganized into the Mongolia-India Friendship Society in 1990.

      - “India Cultural Center” opened in Ulaanbaatar in 1992. The center is engaged in promoting Indian culture and arts to the Mongolians and teaching Hindi to Mongolian children.

      - India Study Center was established in Ulaanbaatar in 2007.

      - A Conference of International Mongolists was held at the India Gandhi Art and Cultural Heritage National Center in New Delhi on 1-3 February 2012.

      - ICCR former Director General Smt. Riva Ganguly Das visited Mongolian in August 2018.

  • Relations in the Defense Sector

    • - Defense Minister of Mongolia visited India in 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2018.

      - Vice Defense Minister of Mongolia visited India in 2016.

      - Defense Minister of India visited Mongolia in 2007.

      - India regularly takes part in the international multilateral exercise “Khan Quest” organized in Mongolia.

      - Mongolian servicemen have been taking part in the annual Indian-Mongolian joint military exercise “Nomadic Elephant.”

      - Joint Working Groups of the Defense Ministries of the two countries meet annually and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the two countries have paid reciprocal visits.

Legal Foundations of Mongolia-Indian Relations

  • Key agreements

    • • Cultural Exchange Protocol (2019-23)

      • MoU in the field of Disaster Management and Disaster Risk Reduction

      • MoU on Cooperation and Usage of Outer Space for peaceful and civilian purposes

      • Comprehensive Work Plan for cooperation in the field of Animal Health and Dairy

      • Mongolia-India Joint Statement

      - Agreement on cooperation in the field of animal health and dairy, Ulaanbaatar, 17 May 2015.

      - Treaty on the transfer of sentenced persons, Ulaanbaatar, 17 May 2015.

      - Air Services Agreement, Ulaanbaatar, 17 May 2015.

      - Agreement on Non-Visa Travels for Citizens holding Diplomatic and Official Passports, New Delhi, 23 December 2005.

      - Treaty on Friendly Relations and Cooperation, New Delhi, 2 February 1994.

      - Agreement on Economic Cooperation, Ulaanbaatar, 22 February 1994.

      - Agreement for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income and on capital, New Delhi, 2 February 1994 (entered into force on 29 March, 1996).